The "Tahoe" project is a distributed filesystem, which safely stores files on multiple machines to protect against hardware failures. Cryptographic tools are used to ensure integrity and confidentiality, and a decentralized architecture minimizes single points of failure. Files can be accessed through a web interface or native system calls (via FUSE). Fine-grained sharing allows individual files or directories to be delegated by passing short URI-like strings through email. Tahoe grids are easy to set up, and can be used by a handful of friends or by a large company for thousands of customers.
The "Tahoe" project is remote filesystem, a place to store files and directories on distant computers instead of your own. The primary goal is robustness: increasing the chances that you will be able to get your data back. The data is spread among several machines so that the files will be recoverable even if some of the servers are lost or unavailable. All data is encrypted and validated to control who can read and modify the contents. Individual files and directories can be shared by passing around small URI-like strings, in either read-write or read-only modes.
A Tahoe grid can be used to back-up files from a home computer, to make sure the data survives a fire or hard drive crash. This grid could be commercially managed (you pay for storage space), or run by a collection of friends on each other's computers (everybody provides storage for each other). The directory-sharing features can be used by a group of coworkers to collaborate on a project; a common place to which they can all read and write.
Each Tahoe client offers a web server through which users can upload and download files. There are also FUSE plugins through which other programs can access the virtual filesystem. Other front-ends are possible.
Tahoe is free software: all of the source code is available under an open-source license. The home page is at http://allmydata.org . Tahoe is sponsored by allmydata.com, which uses it as the back-end for a personal-data backup service.
This paper provides an overview of the Tahoe architecture, enough to get a clear idea of how it is designed and how the various pieces fit together. For actual protocol specifications and installation instructions, please refer to the source code and its accompanying documentation. This paper describes the tahoe-0.8.0 release, and portions of it may be obsoleted by changes in subsequent versions.
The short form: files to be uploaded are encrypted, then split up into pieces. These pieces are created using a technique called "erasure coding", which gives them the interesting property that any sufficiently-large subset will be enough to reconstruct the original file (typically 3-out-of-10). Each piece is uploaded to a different server, distributed to spread the load uniformly and avoid correlated failures. When it is time to download the file, the client asks around to see which servers are still available, pulls the necessary pieces from them, then decodes and decrypts the results.
Users interact with a client that works on their behalf: usually a program running on their local computer, but sometimes running on some other computer. The client runs a local webserver, so the user can point a browser at "http://localhost:8123/", or they can use other front-ends that use the same webserver. The client talks to a collection of storage servers, managed by an Introducer. The clients, servers, introducer, and other components are collectively referred to as a "Tahoe grid".
Tahoe itself is pure-python, but several of the libraries that it depends upon use C extensions (sometimes for speed, sometimes to interface to pre-existing C libraries). Twisted [TWISTED] is used for event-loop and control-flow management, application support, daemonization, web services, and other purposes. Tahoe uses Foolscap [FOOLSCAP] for inter-node communications (which itself uses PyOpenSSL), Nevow [NEVOW] for HTML templating on the web interface, pycryptopp [PYCRYPTOPP] for data encryption (which uses the Crypto++ library [CRYPTO++]), and other support libraries.
Erasure coding is done using the zfec library [ZFEC], which is a python wrapper around the Rizzo FEC library [RIZZO]. The easiest way to visualize how FEC works is to consider a an overspecified polynomial: any two points will define a line, any three points will define a quadratic, etc. By providing more points than are necessary, you can afford to drop many of them without losing the ability to determine the exact polynomial function. The encode() function of the zfec library accepts a chunk of input data, a count of required shares 'k', and a count of total shares 'N'. It then produces 'N' blocks of output data. The total output data is larger than the input by the "expansion factor" N/k. The zfec decode() function takes 'k' blocks of data and produces the original input chunk.
Tahoe is composed of three layers. The lowest layer is effectively a Distributed Hash Table (DHT), like a python dictionary, but spread across multiple machines. In this DHT, there are a large number of "slots" which are filled with arbitrary data. Tahoe has both mutable slots and immutable slots. Immutable slots are write-once: after the slot has been closed, no more data can be written to it. Mutable slots can be written multiple times. Capability discipline is used to control access to the slots: if you hold a write-reference (or "write-cap"), then you can modify the slot, if you don't hold such a reference, then you cannot. Mutable slots have both write-caps and read-caps (and the write-cap can be used to produce a read-cap, so really it is a read+write-cap). Immutable slots have only read-caps. These read- and write- caps can be expressed as short strings, containing encryption keys, integrity hashes, and location information. In this form, they look a lot like web URIs: a string that provides a reference to some piece of data.
The data for each DHT slot is distributed among some number of storage servers, using encryption and erasure coding to provide confidentiality and reliability.
The middle layer is the Virtual Drive, which organizes these slots into directories. Each directory is just a table that maps a name to a read-cap or write-cap of some child file or subdirectory. Each client stores a specific "root directory" to use as a starting point. To visit e.g. /projects/tahoe/README.txt, the client will look up "projects" in the root directory, then look up "tahoe" in the results of that first query, then look up "README.txt" in the results of the second query, and finally present the contents of the file to the user. The table's child entries can point to any file or directory object, even itself, therefore allowing cycles. As a result, the virtual drive is shaped like an arbitrary directed graph rather than being a strict tree.
The top-most layer is an application or presentation service; something that uses the virtual drive for some purpose. We currently have two such interfaces. The most mature one is a RESTful HTTP interfaces, in which PUT, GET, and POST are used to add and retrieve files and directories. This interface provides HTML for the benefit of a human sitting at a web browser, and JSON for the benefit of programs using httplib. The other interface under development is a FUSE plugin, allowing all programs on a host computer to use the Tahoe virtual filesystem as if it were a local one.
Other applications can then be written on top of this, for example a backup program. The Tahoe drive semantics are slightly different than a traditional filesystem, so there is still much work to be done to allow these application programs to make efficient use of Tahoe. For example, a backup program that does a simple 'cp' will spend a lot of time and bandwidth on files which haven't changed since the last backup. Programs like 'rsync' use special protocols to reduce this bandwidth. Similar schemes could be constructed for Tahoe to efficiently determine if a file were already present in the grid and thus avoid uploading it again, or to make small modifications to an existing file.
Tahoe's DHT layer uses two distinct types of slots: Mutable and Immutable. Mutable slots can be changed indefinitely, whereas immutable slots are write-once. We currently use immutable slots for all data files, and mutable slots to contain directories.
Each slot is referenced by a handful of "capabilities": secure identifiers that provide location, confidentiality, and integrity. Each capability grants a specific set of abilities, such as the ability to read a file, or the ability to modify a directory. The access model is simple: if you hold a capability, you can perform the corresponding actions. If not, you cannot. No access control lists or passwords are used in Tahoe.
These capabilities contain cryptographic values: large unguessable numbers and SHA-256 hashes. They are expressed as (relatively) short ASCII strings, which allows them to be passed easily through email, IM, and other channels. To share read-access to a file, you just ask your Tahoe client for that file's read-cap, then mail it to your friend. The friend pastes the read-cap into their own Tahoe client, and the client retrieves the contents of that file for them.
Some capabilities can be used to derive others for the same file, typically by hashing the secret numbers. For example, if you can write to a mutable slot, then you can also read from it. If you can read an immutable file, you can produce a "verify-cap" which gives someone else enough information to check on the availability of the file (and verify the integrity of the ciphertext), but not enough to read the plaintext. This property makes it easy to delegate limited access to other parties: you can create a new directory, grant read access to a coworker, but retain write access for yourself.
The current release uses a central "Introducer", which is responsible for making sure that all clients know about all storage servers. Clients and servers are both special instances of a generic "node", which is just a single program running on a single machine, with a distinct identity. Each node provides certain services to the other nodes, storage being the most common one.
All nodes speak to each other using Foolscap [FOOLSCAP], which provides secure object reference semantics over SSL connections. Each client maintains a connection to all storage servers: if each client is also a server (such as the "friendnet" scenario), this results in a fully-connected mesh topology.
Future releases are expected to make the introduction process less centralized, and to reduce the number of long-lived connections that must be maintained.
Each storage server is assigned a "node id" or "peer id", based upon the fingerprint of the SSL certificate that Foolscap uses for all connections. This provides a secure identifier of the node: to claim a given node id would require knowledge of the corresponding private key. The nodeid is also effectively random, making it attractive to use for load distribution (a sufficiently large number of storage servers will have uniformly distributed nodeids).
Each mutable and immutable slot is associated with a 128-bit number called the "Storage Index". This value is used to determine the location of the encoded shares: both the set of servers that will be used to hold the shares, and to distinguish these shares from all other shares stored on those servers. The Storage Index (or "SI") is unique but not secret.
In general, knowing the storage index is sufficient to obtain the ciphertext of any given mutable or immutable slot. Tahoe effectively has a DHT which maps storage index to ciphertext, and another DHT on top of that which maps read-cap to plaintext. (Note that integrity of the ciphertext must be provided by a distinct value: knowing just the SI is not sufficient to validate the ciphertext).
The Storage Index is contained in or derivable from all other capabilites. For immutable slots, it is the hash of the AES read-key, so holders of the read-key can derive the SI from it. The immutable slot verify-cap contains a verbatim copy of the SI. The same is true for mutable slots.
The Storage Index, being the output of a hash, is effectively random. This property means it can be used to achieve load distribution. Tahoe uses a techique called "hash-based permutation" to convert the SI into a set of servers. For each upload or download, the client creates a list that consists of each server identifier concatenated with the SI, then hashes each item in the list, then sorts the list according to the output of the hash. This creates a consistent-yet-effectively-random ordering of the server list for each file. We then contact the servers at the beginning of the permuted list to place or retrieve shares. For an upload with 3-out-of-10 encoding, we use the first 10 servers that will accept the share. When downloading, we start with the first servers and continue forwards until we have enough shares or we decide we've tried enough and declare failure.
This "peer selection" algorithm (known internally as "Tahoe2" to distinguish it from other possible ones) has the following properties:
"Hot Spots" occur when a given server gets more than a reasonable share of the total traffic. This might occur because a single file (which happens to use that server) is very popular, or very large. It might also occur if the peer selection algorithm tends to put more shares on that server than the others. The Tahoe2 algorithm gives each file a new permutation, so servers should (when averaged over time) get an equal number of share requests, regardless of what their server identifiers are. Hot spots may still occur due to popularity or size.
"Churn" refers to variations in the set of servers over time. In a casual grid, participants may join or drop out at any time. Even in large professionally managed grids, hard drives fail and machines get replaced. As a result, when it comes time to download a file that was uploaded several months or years earlier, not all of the original servers will still be there, and new ones will have been added. These will appear as randomly-located insertions and deletions in the permuted peer list. If the original upload used 10 peers out of a grid that contains 100, and there have been 20 insertions and 20 deletions since then, the download will see (on average) 2 insertions and 2 deletions in the 10% portion that they care about.
The consistent permutation means that the servers found during upload are highly likely to appear early in the list used for download. This means that downloading clients have a good chance of finding their shares with just a few queries. If there has been a lot of churn, they may have to search further afield to find them. The peer selection algorithm is designed to minimize this search depth.
The churn rate (servers added/removed per unit time) directly affects the reliability of the grid. For a Tahoe grid to remain reliable in the long term, files must be repaired fast enough to tolerate the churn. See below for details about approaches to file repair.
Immutable slots in Tahoe are referenced using a cryptographic identifier known as the "read-cap". This read-cap contains (among other things) a hash of the contents of the file. This provides "integrity": the promise that the file you've downloaded matches the file that was originally uploaded, such that no attacker could modify the bytes without your knowledge. The read-cap also contains an AES encryption key, which is not shared with anyone else during the upload or download process. The encryption key provides "confidentiality": the promise that nobody else (i.e. people who don't know the read-cap) can see the plaintext of the file. The file is encrypted on the client machine with this key before being erasure-coded.
In the current release, a Tahoe immutable-slot read-cap looks like this:
The first base32-encoded string (6hw..) is the encryption key, while the second (lgi..) is the SHA-256 hash of the "UEB" (described below), which includes the hash of the file contents.
There are two ways to generate the encryption key. The simplest is to pick a random string. The slightly more complicated approach is to hash the file and use the result as the key, which is then known as a "Content Hash Key", or "CHK" (a technique originating with the Freenet project [FREENET-CHK]). A nice property of CHK is "convergence", meaning that a given file will be encoded to the same read-cap everywhere. This improves the overall behavior of a backup client, because it can avoid duplicate uploads of large common files (such as firefox.exe). On the other hand, it requires more hashing before upload can begin (which may prevent streaming upload).
The encryption key is hashed to get the Storage Index, which governs where the encoded shares are placed (see above). The file is encrypted using this key, then erasure-coded into shares. Erasure-coding is performed one segment at a time (the default segment size is 1MB) for two purposes. The first is to keep the memory footprint down, since the client only need to hold one segment in RAM at a time. The second is to improve a property called "download alacrity": the amount of time it takes to get the first byte of validated plaintext. A low alacrity allows, for example, a streaming music player to begin playing the song quickly, rather than requiring that the whole file be downloaded first.Each segment is hashed separately, and a Merkle hash tree over the segments is stored along with the shares. This means it is possible to validate the hash of a single segment without needing to retrieve all the other segments too. The segment size can be reduced to improve alacrity and make the download smoother (smaller pieces more frequently) at the expense of storage overhead.
The shares that are placed on the storage servers are an aggregate data structure, containing the following:
The Merkle tree of blocks makes it possible to isolate share corruption to a single server (the other hashes allow the client to detect corruption, but recovery is much easier if we know exactly which server has the bad share). The ciphertext hashes make it possible for a verifier or repairer to validate both the shares and the erasure-coding process. The plaintext hashes add the ability for read-cap holders to validate the decryption process.
The hash of the URI Extension Block is included in the read-cap and verify-cap, providing an integrity check on everything, including the original file contents.
The capabilities associated with an immutable slot are:
The read-cap can be used to derive the verify-cap, but not the other way around.
Mutable slots in Tahoe are referenced with an identifier known as the "write-cap" which, in the current release, looks like this:
Each slot has an RSA public/private keypair. Knowing the private key allows write access, while the public key is public knowledge and allows all parties to verify the integrity of the encoded ciphertext. Read access is protected by an AES "read-key". Because RSA keys are big, we hash the RSA private key to form an AES "write-key", and use it to store an encrypted copy of the RSA private key inside the share. The read-key is then the hash of the write-key, and the Storage Index is the hash of the read-key. Each share contains a copy of the RSA public key, and the hash of the public key (usually known as the "fingerprint") can be used to make sure we're using the correct public key.
The write-cap is then the write-key and the public key fingerprint. The read-cap is the read-key and the public key fingerprint. The verify-cap is the storage index and the public key fingerprint. Thus each cap can be used to derive the next.
Mutable slots are inspired by the "Signed Subspace Key" design in Freenet [FREENET-SSK], which has similar properties.
The current contents of the mutable slot are signed using the RSA private key, and the signature goes into the share. When a client wants to download the file, it computes the storage index, retrieves the public key, checks its fingerprint, then downloads the data and checks its signature. When uploading a new version of the file, the client uses the storage index to retrieve a copy of the encrypted private key, uses the write-key to decrypt it, uploads a new copy of the data, signs that data using the private key, then uploads the new signature.
The actual details are more complex, to deal with the possibility of simultaneous colliding writes. Each time the mutable file is modified, it gets a new "version identifier", which consists of a sequence number and a hash of the file's contents. The signature covers this identifier as well as several encoding parameters which can affect the way shares are produced. There is an algorithm to control how the uploader decides what sequence number to use, and how downloads should react when they see a variety of sequence numbers, carefully designed to optimize reliability and minimize confusion.
The current version of Tahoe's mutable slots (known as "SMDF: Small Mutable Distributed Files") imposes a size limit of one segment (usually 1MB), and only allows updates that replace the whole file at once. We have initial designs for more advanced forms: "medium"-sized MDMF to allow larger files and updates of individual segments in-place, and "large" LDMF to allow insert/delete and preserve multiple versions of the data.
The capabilities associated with a mutable slot are (in descending order of power: each cap can be used to derive the one below it):
Directories are simply tables that map a child name to a read-cap or write-cap for that child. For example, a directory that contained a file called "foo.txt" and a subdirectory called "documents/" could be represented as:
This table is serialized into a single string and stored in a mutable slot. Note that if we only had immutable slots, each change to a directory would create a new file for that directory, causing any parent directories to change, etc, rippling all the way up to the root directory. There are benefits to this approach (journalling filesystems use it to provide atomic updates), but for performance and complexity reasons (mainly garbage collection), Tahoe does not currently work this way.
We put each file or directory into a "node" of the directory graph, so this graph consists of "filenodes" and "dirnodes". Each filenode is a leaf. The root directory is simply a pointer to some dirnode inside this graph, and the full "contents" of the vdrive are just the set of nodes which are reachable from that starting point. One Tahoe operation used for maintenance and repair is to build the "manifest", which is a set of verify-caps for all files and directories that a given user cares about; this is built by doing a traversal of the graph from that starting point and accumulating the verify-cap for each node.
Because files are only readable by holders of their read-caps, the directory is only traversable by those who hold the read-cap. Entries may only be added, removed, or modified by holders of the write-cap.
The directory structure is slightly more complicated than described above. The first complication is that we add "metadata" to each table entry. This is known as "edge" metadata, because it exists on the directory graph's edges rather than on its nodes. This metadata is associated with a name, rather than with a file: two difference references to the same file will have different edge-metadata. We currently use this to store creation/modification timestamps (ctime+mtime), but a future release will provide an interface to attach arbitrary key-value pairs to each edge. We may also add node-metadata in the future, perhaps for things like Content-Type.
The second complication is that we store two separate capabilities in each table entry, the child's read-cap, and its write-cap. The read-cap is stored normally, so everyone who can read the directory will be able to get read access to its children. The child's write-cap is encrypted with the dirnode's write-key before being stored in the table. This provides a useful property of "transitive readonlyness": if you've been given read-only access to a directory, you get read-only access to its children instead of read-write access. (you might have read-write access to some child directory via some other path, but not through the one that passes through this dirnode).
To avoid crypto problems with key-reuse, the actual AES key for each write-cap is formed by hashing a randomly-generated salt with the dirnode's write-key. This salt is stored next to the entry's ciphertext.
The current dirnode structure uses SDMF files as their backing store, therefore they are limited to directories that can fit in a single 1MB segment (which results in a limit of about 3000 entries per directory), and must be retrieved and updated all at once. When MDMF files are implemented, it will become possible to fetch a single dirnode entry without needing to download the whole thing: at that point it may become useful to build an index at the start of the file, so that the useful span of data can be determined. However, this must be balanced against the latency of performing multiple retrievals: only extremely large directories would benefit.
Tahoe seeks to be a secure filesystem: to make certain promises about the security of the data stored in it. The most important property it tries to provide is "data integrity": the promise that attackers cannot modify your stored data without detection. It also offers "confidentiality": the promise that attackers cannot read your files unless you give them permission. Unlike some related projects, Tahoe does not attempt to offer "privacy" or anonymity: the promise that attackers can find out which files you are storing or retrieving.
These security goals are achieved by encrypting and hashing all data before it leaves the user's client. No other machines are assumed or required to behave correctly. Shares are public knowledge: storage servers are expected to store and return data, but are not required to keep it secret. A malicious or buggy storage server (one which returns corrupted data) cannot cause undetected changes to a file.
When diagnostic logs need to record information about a file upload or download, they log the storage index rather than anything that can be turned into an encryption key. Web server logs are censored to remove file capabilities inside URLs. The web server can be used to access private data, but only when supplied with a read-cap: no secrets are disclosed on pages with guessable URLs. In fact, the Tahoe node does not remember read- or write- caps once the upload or download operation has finished: all authority that it uses must be given to it by the user.
Cryptographic hashes (SHA-256) are used throughout Tahoe to provide data integrity: the promise that attackers cannot modify stored data without detection. If a share is corrupted, the Tahoe download algorithm will ignore it and use other shares. If all shares are corrupted, the download process will raise an exception. If any data-corrupting bug has occurred during the upload or download process, the hash checks will probably detect the error and raise an exception rather than return corrupt data to the user.
For mutable files, the integrity promise is that the data retrieved was uploaded by some authorized writer (one who possesses the file's write-cap). Obviously the promise is stronger for immutable files: the data will match exact data that was uploaded by the creator of the read-cap. So, while it is reasonable to read the contents of an immutable read-cap today and expect them to be the same next week, this is not the case for mutable files: someone (perhaps unknown to you) who retains the write-cap may modify the file by the time you read it a second time. In addition, if an attacker controls enough storage servers, they can accomplish a "rollback attack", in which your mutable file is returned to the state that it was in last week or last month. The best defense against this is to query more servers than are strictly necessary: this requires the attacker to control all the servers instead of merely a subset.
Though Tahoe files are retrievable by pathname through the virtual drive, applications which care about integrity should identify files by their read-caps. Anyone with a write-cap on any of the intermediate directories can change the mapping from pathname to file contents, whereas changing the mapping from read-cap to immutable file contents would require breaking SHA-256.
The second security promise that Tahoe attempts to provide is confidentiality: keeping your plaintext secret. All file contents are encrypted (using AES in counter mode) before leaving the client, and the key is not shared with unauthorized parties. As long as you do not reveal the read-cap for a file, nobody else will be able to read it.
In general, Tahoe does not make any attempt to provide anonymity or privacy. This means that a sufficiently powerful observer (one who runs several storage servers) can determine which user uploaded or downloaded any given file. Although directories are encrypted in the same way as files, timing analysis can be used to deduce which files are in which directories, even if the attacker cannot read the contents of those files.
Note that Foolscap provides strong encryption of all inter-node links, so the attacker must actually control the storage server to mount this attack. Merely observing the encrypted traffic entering and leaving the storage server is insufficient.
If convergence is in use, then the fact that storage index values are public knowledge means that observers can deduce which common files you are working with. Specifically, if my copy of firefox.exe and yours both upload to the same read-cap (and therefore use the same storage index), any storage server that I run will see your lease requests for that storage index, and I will be able to deduce that you are uploading or downloading firefox.exe . If you were using random keys (thus disabling convergence), I would see an unrelated storage index. Of course, I would still see the filesize, and that may be sufficiently unique that I could make the same deduction.
Each share that is put on a storage server is covered by one or more "leases", one for each client that wants the share to stick around. Each lease is a promise by the storage server to hold the share faithfully on disk and to provide it to anyone who asks. The lease may be valid indefinitely, or for a limited period of time (we expect one month to be a common default). Any lease can be cancelled by the client which requested it, and when the last lease is cancelled or expires, the share can be deleted to reclaim storage space.
When clients no longer care about a file, they are expected to cancel the leases on all of its shares. This should occur shortly after that file is deleted from their virtual drive. Because the vdrive graph could contain multiple references to any given file, the actual process involves constructing a manifest of all files on a periodic basis, and looking for changes to that manifest. If a client deletes a whole directory, the next manifest will be missing many files (as well as the directory itself), and the client will need to cancel many leases.
If the grid uses expiring leases, then those leases that are still needed must be renewed on a periodic basis. In this mode, the client performs lease renewal on its current manifest perhaps once a week. Expiring leases insure that space is eventually reclaimed, even if a client fails to explicitly cancel a lease.
Once a file has been uploaded to a Tahoe grid, it is expected to stay there until the last client cancels its lease. However, hard drives are fallible, with current drives advertising an average lifetime (MTBF: Mean Time Between Failure) of about 40,000 hours, or approximately 4.5 years. In addition, machines come and go over time: storage servers may be rebooted or taken offline for maintenance, friendnet machines may leave the grid and never come back.
We can draw a distinction between availability problems (caused by machines that are temporarily offline but which are likely to return) and reliability problems (caused by permanent failures: disk failures, servers which leave and never come back). It may not be possible for the client to tell the difference, but we can model the probabilities of each one separately and add up the results.
We define the "health" of a file as the number of outstanding shares that can be found on distinct servers. This value will be at a maximum just after it is uploaded, but will slowly drop towards zero over time, as shares disappear from the grid. This is a probabilistic drop (i.e. the health is a random variable), with an expected value that decays exponentially over time. When the number of available shares drops below the number of required shares, the file will be irretrievable. With professionally-managed storage servers, a 4 year drive MTBF, and 3-of-10 encoding, we can expect a failure rate (for any given file) of about .2 shares per month, leading (on average) to file loss after 8/.2 = 40 months.
The goal of "repair" is to make sure this does not happen, or more specifically to reduce the chance of file loss to some acceptably small value. We cannot completely rule out the possibility of file loss (since there is always a slight chance of all the storage servers failing simultaneously), but we can reduce it to arbitrarily low values as long as we're willing to pay the storage and bandwidth costs. Note that another way to quantify the reliability of file retrieval is to calculate the MTBF of any given file, and to make sure that it is so high (thousands of years) that the chances of losing even one file out of millions is acceptably low.
To repair the file, some client merely needs to download the ciphertext and re-upload it: the client does not need to be able to read the plaintext. This means that the repair function can be delegated to someone who doesn't get read access, if the original uploader isn't able to do it themselves. For example, the original user uploads some files, then goes on vacation for five years and leaves their computer turned off that whole time. This user would need to find another client willing to repair its files until they get back: they could pass their manifest of repair-caps (basically the same as verify-caps) to the repairer to check on during their absence. In a commercial Tahoe grid, the repairer might be run by the service provider on behalf of all their customers.
To avoid losing data in the long run, the overall repair rate must equal the share loss rate. If a petabyte grid has 1000 1TB drives, each with an MTBF of 40000 hours, then we can expect to lose one drive every 40 hours, which represents a rate of 7 megabytes per second. The repair process must create new shares at this same rate to keep up.
The big question is when to perform this repair. To minimize bandwidth usage, repair should be done at the last possible moment: just before the last vital share goes away (i.e. when the health of the file drops to k-1). On the other hand, to minimize the probability of file loss, the repair should be done as soon as possible: when we lose the very first share (i.e. at N-1). Clearly, we must choose some compromise point between these extremes.
One approach is to define a "check frequency" and a "repair threshold". A monthly check frequency means that once each month, somebody performs a "file check" for each file: the client simply queries the appropriate servers and counts the number of existing shares. If that count is below the repair threshold, the client initiates a repair operation for that file (or notifies a separate repair agent). The cost of this approach depends upon the number of files, the check frequency, and the repair threshold. We expect it should be appropriate for small grids, but the load may be unacceptably high for larger commercial grids.
A different approach is to pay attention to the storage servers instead of the files. If we are informed when a storage server fails, and if we can get a list of storage index values for all the shares that used to be on that server, then we can trigger repair of just the files that need it. We are investigating ways to reliably maintain a table of which shares are on which servers (a large but not insurmountable database problem). If the table is constructed to allow efficient counting of how many shares are available for each file, repair can be delayed beyond the first share loss (using a repair threshold), reducing the repair costs. With this approach, there is no filechecking. The table would not necessarily have to be centralized: each server could have a set of "buddy servers" to which they report their share lists. Once the buddy determines that the server has failed, the buddy could be responsible for informing a repair process of the list of files that now need repair.
Another question is where to perform the repair. Note that each repair operation requires one full download plus an upload of each missing share (each of which requires 1/N of the normal upload bandwidth). For a commercial grid, in which the storage servers live in a colocation facility, repair will be cheapest when performed by a machine in the same colo (and therefore have fast cheap bandwidth to the servers). High-availability grids that are split between multiple colos will want to keep repair confined to a single colo. This suggests that each site should have k+1 shares, allowing single-failure-triggered repair to remain in-colo, and only requiring expensive inter-colo bandwidth to be used when multiple servers in a single colo fail at the same time.
A stronger form of checking is called "File Verification", which downloads the ciphertext and validates the hashes. This will detect disk errors that somehow slip past the hard drive's built-in integrity checking, or buggy/malicious storage servers which have corrupted the shares. The most intensive form of verification would download every share and validate every byte. Tahoe does not currently perform this kind of check, but provisions will be made to allow the user to initiate such a check whenever they like. This check would be most useful in an environment where storage servers are not trusted to honor the leases they have agreed to. For more details about this sort of environment, see the section on "P2P" below.
Each storage server offers a limited amount of disk space to the world. Leases are accepted until this (configurable) limit is reached, then leases are rejected until some shares are deleted to free up space. This protects the storage server from disk exhaustion, and allows its admin to decide how much space they want to dedicate to the Tahoe grid.
On the other hand, limiting per-user storage consumption is a larger topic, and one that is still very much under research. The current release makes no attempt to enforce quotas: there is no way for an admin to declare that they want to allow Alice to use 5GB but no more, and that Bob should get 10GB.
The current plan is to have each user create a DSA public/private keypair, and then have an "Account Server" which produces "membership cards", basically a signed certificate that states something like "DSA key #123 (owned by 'Alice', account #4) is a member in good standing until date 4/1/2008". The storage servers will then be configured with the Account Server's public key. The first time a client contacts a server, it presents its current membership card along with a signed request for service, and the server checks the contents and the signatures. If valid, the server gives the client a shared secret that can be used for later storage requests: the leases created in these requests will be marked with the user's account number.
Then, by enumerating the leases marked with account #4, the storage server can determine that Alice is currently using 4.9GB, and a request for a 2GB lease should be turned down. For a centrally-managed grid, the storage servers can report this lease-ownership data to a central accounting facility on a periodic basis, enabling the creation of a report that shows the full-grid usage per customer. The accounting facility can then bill customers appropriately. Our current expectation is to have the client software track its own total usage and refrain from going over the quota, using random server-side audits to enforce the quota policy.
Note that the repair process needs to be aware of these per-account leases too. When a server is lost and replacement shares are created on new servers, those shares eventually need to acquire replacement leases too. This may require giving the repair agent the authority to create leases on behalf of other users. Another approach is to have the repair agent create leases under its own authority, then eventually transfer those leases back to the original client (when it comes back online). In the meantime, the repair agent can remember which leases it is holding on behalf of which client, so that the associated storage can be accounted properly.
Tahoe achieves high reliability by expanding the data into shares which, in combination, are larger than the original file by an expansion factor N/k. This means that uploads will push more data than downloads, typically 3x more (for the default 3-of-10 encoding). It is unfortunate that most home internet connections (ADSL or cable modem) are highly asymmetrical, offering upload speeds that are 8x-10x slower than their download speeds. For Tahoe, these two slowdowns are in the same direction, meaning that an unassisted Tahoe upload might be 30x slower than a download of the same file.
One way to mitigate this effect is to use an "Upload Helper". This is a service, run on a node in some convenient location, which performs encoding on behalf of its clients. Files are still encrypted on the original computer (so the helper does not get to see plaintext), but the resulting ciphertext is sent to the Helper, which then encodes it into shares and sends the shares to the storage servers.
This will allow the client to perform a 1x upload (sending the same amount of data as the original file), as opposed to the 3x upload that would result if the client had to send all N shares. If the bandwidth from the helper to the servers is high enough, the transfer of shares to the servers will complete in less time than the ciphertext transfer, and the overall process will be faster than an unassisted upload. For a commercial grid, the helper can be located in the same colo as the storage servers, giving them extremely high bandwidth, typically several megabytes per second.
In addition, the helper is in a good position to perform a pre-check to see if a given file is already present in the grid before the client spends the upload bandwidth. Clients must perform local hashing to compute the encryption key and the storage index, but then they ask the helper if the storage index is already present, and skip the upload if so. This "de-duplication" feature can allow clients to avoid redundant uploads of common files that have previously been uploaded by some other user. Convergence is necessary to take advantage of this feature, otherwise two separate uploads of the same file will not be comparable.
Finally, the helper can accumulate the ciphertext on disk before beginning the upload. This is a great help for the unfortunate client that gets interrupted halfway through an upload: when it tries the upload a second time, it will learn that half the ciphertext is already present on the helper, and it only has to transfer the remaining data, thus salvaging the previous upload progress. Convergence (or some other way to make one upload of a given file achieve the same storage index as a later one) is required to take advantage of this feature.
Tahoe has been specifically designed to work well in both friend-net and commercial-grid use-cases. The friend-net case (in which a group of friends all run storage servers for each other, and each also runs a client to push their own files into this grid) is a "peer to peer" scenario, in which no node is more special than any others. In contrast, a commercial grid will typically have storage servers in colo that do not run clients, while customer machines will run clients but not provide storage service.
The main advantage of using P2P technology is to increase reliability and lower costs. Each point of centralization is also a point of failure. No Tahoe storage server is special: any k shares will do, and any component of a tahoe grid can fail without causing data loss. Storage servers are expected to fail at a certain rate, repair processes are not time-critical, and we are working to replace the centralized introducer with a distributed form. Distributed services are also easier to scale up to higher traffic levels than centralized ones.
Through erasure coding, it is possible to obtain extremely high reliability with modest expansion factors. Most home computers have a lot of unused hard drive space, so it is usually a good bargain to trade some of that space for the service of getting reliable storage on the rest of a friend-net grid.
In addition, the download code will retrieve multiple shares in parallel ('k' at a time), so it may be possible to get better utilization of the available download bandwidth than a simple single-copy remote transfer would achieve. On a home ADSL line, the download speed is typically 8x faster than the upload speed. If the members of a friendnet all have identical DSL lines, and 'k' is at least 8, then the download code will pull from enough servers to saturate the download link. This property is sometimes known as a "swarming download", but note that, unlike BitTorrent, Tahoe does not use downloading clients to push data towards other downloading clients.
On the other hand, the expansion factor (N/k) is causing a slowdown in the already-slow upload direction: with 3-of-10, a Tahoe upload may be 30x slower than a download. If speed is a higher priority than reliability, 9-of-10 will allow uploads to be almost as fast as a simple remote copy, and still exploit download parallelism. Another possibility is to set up a Helper (see above) on some machine with good upstream bandwidth (perhaps in a colo facility), which would remove the expansion-factor penalty.
Tahoe (and allmydata.com) is a distant relative of the Mojo Nation project [MOJO], which used economic incentives to encourage participants to provide storage space to each other. Systems like that are designed to tolerate cheating, in which a node might pretend to hold a share, but would in fact throw it away. In Mojo Nation (and Mnet which followed it), credits were exchanged at both upload and download time, so if a server couldn't actually cough up the share on demand, clients would stop using it, resulting in a loss of revenue, and thus creating an incentive for the server to act honestly and honor their promises.
Tahoe has no such features at this time. Clients assume that shares which have been accepted by a storage server will be retained and retrieveable until the lease is cancelled or expires, or until the server fails. Therefore cheating is equivalent to server failure. More importantly, Tahoe clients choose servers purely on the basis of their nodeids (and the Tahoe2 peer-selection algorithm), and do not compute or use any notion of "reliability", so even if the client could detect that a given server had a poor track record of returning stored data, it would have no way to avoid using that server again in the future.
Each Tahoe node can run a web server through which both humans and programs can manipulate the virtual drive. The human-oriented interface (known as the Web User Interface: "WUI") displays each directory on a separate page, with forms to upload, buttons to delete, and hyperlinks to download. The interface is functional but not particularly pretty, being oriented towards engineers and Tahoe developers more than customers.
This same web server offers a machine-oriented RESTful interface, in which PUT is used for upload, GET is used for download, and DELETE is used for delete. This well-defined Web API ("WAPI") interface can be used by programs (using simple httplib calls) to work with the virtual drive.
In both modes, the HTTP client starts by passing in a directory read- or write- cap. There are no login passwords or cookies. However convenient it might be, if the web server were to remember any secrets for you, it would become vulnerable to CSRF attacks. By requiring that the client provide the access authority in the URL, these attacks are blocked. It also enables simple and intuitive use of browser bookmarks to retain pointers to various files and directories. Users can share access to any page by merely copying the current URL from the address bar and mailing it to their friend.
The web server also provides some diagnostic information on the current state of the grid, and timing/progess data on recent uploads and downloads.
A primitive command-line tool is distributed with Tahoe, named "tahoe", and provides basic 'ls', 'put', and 'get' functionality. This tool uses a private "root.cap" file on disk as a starting point.
There are several FUSE plugins available, for various platforms: a WinFUSE one (which, despite the name, uses SMB), and an OS-X/Linux one. These make the Tahoe virtual drive visible to regular programs, allowing them to read and write arbitrary files. This enables a large class of applications to take advantage of Tahoe, but is not without its pitfalls. There are several impedance mismatches between the filesystem provided by Tahoe and the one that most POSIX-oriented programs expect. So far, immutable files and edge-based metadata have been the two sticking points. Several filesystem features that we think of as optional are less so, for example the Macintosh OS-X Finder will refuse to update a directory view unless its mtime has been advanced. Tahoe stores mtime as edge-metadata in the parent dirnode, rather than as node-metadata on the child dirnode, making it difficult to update the mtime consistently and correctly.
Many applications do not tolerate the close() call taking a significant amount of time: some Windows applications appear to use 30-60 second timeouts and declare a failure if close() does not return within this time. Of these applications, the ones that work with (relatively slow) network filesystems at all seem to expect the delays to occur inside the write() calls rather than in close(). Since Tahoe stores most data as immutable files (and convergence is the default), it is difficult to push the correct data over a slow link before having all the data available. Several tradeoffs must be made. Finding a clean "impedance match" between Tahoe's concept of a filesystem and that of POSIX is a continuing effort.
Tahoe's primary goal is to provide safe, reliable storage of data. This comes at a cost: redundant shares and periodic repair. There is a tradeoff between cost and reliability: more redundancy means more hard drives and more servers, but will reduce the chances of file loss. If we could model the relationship between these two quantities, we could make an educated decision between the costs and the benefits.
Full analysis of the Tahoe reliability model is well beyond the scope of this paper, but we can attempt to provide an initial sketch here. There are two metrics to pay attention to: availability and reliability.
Availability is the chance that a given file can be downloaded right now. Reliability is the chance that a given file can be downloaded at some point in the future. When a server is offline for a few minutes while it reboots, that affects availability. When a hard drive has a head crash and all the shares on it are lost forever, that affects reliability.
In truth, these are both special cases of the same function. The general form is expressed as follows. At time t=0, we finish uploading a given file. At some time in the future t=T, we decide that we want to download it. We are willing to wait until t=T+A to get the file. What is the probability that we will be able to get the file? This probability is a function of both T and A (as well as the encoding parameters and the availability/failure behavior of all servers). Let us call it Pfile(T,A). Now the "availability" is what we call this function when A is small: Pfile(T,0). The "reliability" is what we call it when A is large: Pfile(T,infinity).
We model servers as being available Pa of the time. For example, a cheap linux box in a colo facility with reliable power can easily achieve 99.9% uptime, which allows 9 hours per year for upgrades and hardware replacements. 99.7% uptime is achievable without requiring operations personnel to wear a pager. We model hard drives as having some well-characterized failure behavior, for example a Poisson process with rate = 1/40000 hours. We make the assumption that hard drives are 100% available until they fail forever, and that all servers are replaceable (by moving the drives to a different chassis if necessary), so server failure can be expressed as downtime.
Note that to achieve the metrics predicted by these models, operations must be careful to avoid correlated failures. For example, the rack full of 99.9%-available servers must not all be rebooted at the same time. Likewise, hard drives are frequently killed by power surges and thermal damage, which can affect neighboring drives simultaneously.
For large grids, we expect Tahoe storage servers to consist of large numbers of 1U or 2U rack-mounted machines in a colo facility: this means 4 or 8 drives per server. We assume that this ratio is low enough that we can neglect the chance that multiple shares for the same file will wind up on the same server (but on different drives). Once the total number of servers is high enough, this is a fairly reasonable assumption.
Without too much loss of accuracy, we can examine availability and reliability separately. Availability is easier, and is only influenced by server availability (and encoding parameters). 3-of-10 encoding means that there are 10 servers of interest, and that we can retrieve the file if at least 3 of them are available. This is a textbook case of the well-known "binomial distribution function", specifically the "upper tail" of that function (UTBF according to my HP calculator), which is a function of k, N, and Pa. It is defined as the sum of the chance that all 10 servers are available, plus the chance that there are exactly 9 servers available, plus 8 servers, etc, down to the chance that there are 3 servers available. The corresponding chance of failure is the "lower tail" (LTBF), specifically the chance that there are exactly 0, 1, or 2 servers available.
When Pa=50% this looks like the area under the right-hand side of the normal Bell curve (with a dividing line drawn at 0.3 instead of 0.5). But when Pa is close to 100%, this curve is drastically skewed towards the right, and the probability of success is close to 100% as well. To maintain numerical accuracy, we use two techniques. The first is to pay attention to the probability of failure rather than the probability of success, and the other is to use an approximation in the binomial distribution equation.
To this end we use a metric adapted from the electrical engineering world: the decibel (dB). The "Bel" is a logarithmic scale, and a "deciBel" is one tenth of a Bel. So in EE terms, 0 dBW is 1.0 watts, 10 dBW is 10 watts, 20 dBW is 100 watts, and 30 dBW is a kilowatt. 5 dBW is sqrt(10) = 3.3 watts. 3 dBW is about 2 watts. -10 dBW is 0.1 watts, -20 dBW is 10 milliwatts, and -30 dBW is 1 milliwatt.
Using this concept, we define a metric named "dBA", which measures decibels of availability. We also define its opposite, a "dBF" (which measures failure).
|100% failure||0 dBF||0 dBA||0% success|
|10% failure||-10 dBF||10 dBA||90% success|
|1% failure||-20 dBF||20 dBA||99% success|
|.1% failure||-30 dBF||30 dBA||99.9% success ("three nines")|
|.01% failure||-40 dBF||40 dBA||99.99% success ("four nines")|
|.001% failure||-50 dBF||50 dBA||99.999% success ("five nines")|
We use this for the same reason EEs use it: it makes it easy to convert multiplication into addition, and exponentiation into multiplication. This turns out to simplify many of the equations. In addition, it makes it easier to retain numerical accuracy when dealing with numbers that are very close to 1.0.
The second techique we use is to observe that the LTBF area (when P is close to 100%) is dominated by the N=k-1 sample. That is, for our 3-of-10 case, the chance that there are exactly 2 servers available is so much higher than the chance of having exactly 1 server available, that for engineering purposes (i.e. within an order of magnitude) we can ignore the N=1 (and N=0) cases.
Through these approximations, we observe that 3-of-10 encoding with servers that are available 90% of the time results in 64 dBA, meaning that the chance that there will be fewer than three servers available is less than one in a million. With 99%-available servers, the number climbs to 144 dBA, which is one in 10e14. And with 99.9%-available servers, we get 224 dBA, which is one in 10e22. Clearly, redundancy is a valuable technique for achieving extremely high availability.
The approximation to pay attention to is the number of servers we must lose before the file cannot be retrieved: N-k+1. There must be this many simultaneous offline servers, and the probability of each being offline is very low (P=10%, 1%, or 0.1% in our example). Each additional server whose loss we can tolerate reduces our unavailability probability by another factor of P. In dBA terms, the file-availability "dBAfile" equals (N-k+1)*dBAserver+B, where B is a function of N and k (specifically "N choose k-1"). So the availability of a single server is magnified by the number of servers that we can lose due to encoding.
Note that this analysis considers high-availability servers and large expansion ratios. If we consider either low-availability servers (50% or less), or low expansion ratios (i.e. 8-of-10, which only expands the data by 25%), the story is very different. With no expansion (i.e. 10-of-10), the file availability is drastically lower than the individual server availability, because you are depending upon all 10 servers to be available at the same time. Low-availability servers are difficult to distinguish from failed servers, raising the possibility that the system may spend more bandwidth doing repair than on actual user traffic [BLAKE].
Also note that this analysis only covers server hardware failure. Once enough redundancy has been used to remove the threat of hardware failure, other problems become visible. The most likely remaining one is software failure: since all server nodes are likely to be running the same code, a bug in that release will affect all of them. Client-side problems will also prevent a client from getting access to their files. The goal of erasure coding and redundancy is to survive the failure mode that we have the least control over (hardware failure), leaving us responsible for the failure modes that we have more control over (software engineering practices). It is not appropriate to calculate an availability of 224 dBA and then assume that the system really is that robust, but it gives us confidence that when a problem does happen, it won't be the result of a disk crash.
Reliability (the chance that a file will be available at some point in the future) is a far more complicated analysis task. Simply modelling the failure characteristics of a single hard drive is a difficult and poorly-understood field of study [GOOGLE-DISK]. The best we can do here is to describe the general direction that our analysis is heading.
We start with some sort of failure pattern for hard drives, the ever-popular useful fiction: a poission process. Hard drives are assumed to fail randomly as some specified rate, once per MTBF. We assume all drive failures are independent and that each share is on a different drive. The number of surviving shares for any particular file will decay over time in a roughly exponential shape. By modelling this shape, we can derive some probability distribution for the number of surviving shares at any given point in time.
We will have some sort of repair process: either triggered by file checking (run periodically), or by the loss of a server. In both cases we assume that the repair is only triggered when the health drops below some threshold R, so there is some time A at which the health is just at the threshold, some intermediate point when we decide to initiate a repair, and some later time B when the repair process has successfully downloaded a copy of the ciphertext and can now survive the loss of the remaining shares. If the file loses R-k+1 shares between time A and time B, then we've lost the file. This is the probability we are interested in.
We might assume that the repair load is low enough to allow effectively instantaneous repairs. In that case, a grid which uses periodic file-checking is mostly affected by the rate of file-checking: checking faster uses more network bandwidth, but checking slower increases the chance of file loss. Raising the repair threshold increases the rate of repair (costing bandwidth and CPU), but lowering it increases the chance of file loss. For grids that use a centralized tracking of which shares are present on each server, the periodic filecheck poll is replaced by a server-loss interrupt, reducing the critical interval. Grids which are willing to implement this kind of centralization may be able to afford lower repair thresholds and achieve the same level of reliability.
The Tahoe project is still in its infancy: most of the code is about 6 months old, and changes are occurring rapidly. There are several features currently in active development, and many others looming on the horizon.
The current RSA-based mutable files require large primes that take several seconds to generate, limiting the rate at which new directories can be created. The keys are too large to fit in the URI, so they must be pushed out to the share, requiring multiple round-trips to get them down to the client, which slows down both reads and writes.
We have a design in place (ticket #217) for DSA-based mutable files using a system-wide shared modulus, which would allow very fast directory creation, and make the private key small enough to fit inside the write-cap. In addition, the write-caps will be smaller, making the containing dirnodes smaller and faster to manipulate.
We plan to update the write-cap format at the same time to make these strings short enough to fit in a 72-column email without line-wrapping, and to avoid word-breaking characters that tend to cause cut-and-paste errors.
Once the number of storage servers becomes large, the need for clients to talk to many (perhaps all) of them becomes a burden. There are alternate network topologies that scale better: one well-known approach is known as Chord [CHORD], in which the number of connections grows logarithmically with the number of nodes rather than linearly. Our general idea is to use the Chord network to send a bundle of lease requests to the target area, then have the target nodes send the individual requests to their immediate neighbors as necessary. Each accepted lease request causes the server to contact the uploading client directly, and share data is sent over a direct TCP connection between the two.
The Tahoe2 peer-selection algorithm is designed to provide uniform load distribution, but there are other desirable properties we could design for. Servers may be distributed in user's homes, in a colo facility, on employee desktops, etc, and some are closer to clients than others. For download speed, it would be fastest to have a full set of 'k' shares resident on a server on the same LAN as the likely clients. The download-time peer-selection algorithm could preferentially choose close or fast servers, using the others only when necessary. A corporate grid designed this way could put one full set of shares on-site for speed, and use off-site servers just to improve reliability.
For data that is expected to survive for years, repair is inevitable. Repairing files costs bandwidth, since it needs both a full download and a partial upload. But not all bandwidth costs the same: local gigabit ethernet within a single rack or machine room is quite common, whereas even 10 megabit symmetric bandwidth to a house or office is prohibitively expensive. Local repair will be far cheaper than a repair that must push the data a long distance. To this end, we could place k+1 shares in each colo, allowing single-disk failures to be repaired entirely locally, and using multiple colos to tolerate multiple-disk failures and site-wide disasters (i.e. a flood that takes out the whole facility).
To obtain these properties, we will need to modify the upload-time peer selection algorithm to place shares according to our new goals. Instead of using a hash-based permutation, we could simply interleave the servers into a useful order (colo1-hostA, colo2-hostB, colo1-hostC, colo2-hostD, etc), and then use a SI-based starting index. Achieving load distribution requires additional effort, but is not infeasible.
The Tahoe project, while still under development, provides a useful system for safely backing up important files. Distributed storage and cryptographic techniques provide protection against prying eyes, data corruption, and machine failure. Tahoe grids are easy to set up and have been specifically designed to be useful for both small friend-nets and large commercial deployments.